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Foot Conditions
Ingrown Ingrown Toenail: A piece of nail, or a nail splinter, that has pierced the skin and usually becomes infected.
Cause: Sweaty feet, improper footwear, poor nail cutting.
Treatment: Removal of nail spike, education of proper nail care, elimination of tight footwear, packing of nail plate, antibiotics, surgery. (BACK)
Fungal Toenail Fungal Toenails: A thickening of the nail plate with/or without fungal involvement.
Cause: trauma, age related, hereditary, long-term neglect, diabetes/impaired circulation.
Treatment: Thinning of nail, anti-fungal agents, home care and hygiene education. (BACK)
Callus Callus: A toughened area of skin which has become thick and hard.
Cause: Structural foot deformities, repeated friction, pressure or irritation due to improper footwear.
Treatment: Paring of callus, footwear advice, emollients, topical medications to aid removal. (BACK)
  Corns: A callus with a hard core centre.
Cause: Direct stress to an area of the foot, force of the ground on joint.
Treatment: Removal of corn with topical agents, deflective padding in footwear preventing irritation, orthotics, specialty footwear. (BACK)
  Warts: A vial infection. Can be single or multiple skin tumours, usually resembles a flat piece of cauliflower with black dots.
Cause: Contact with the skin of an infected person or with objects used by an infected person (ex. pools, showers).
Treatment: Paring of lesion, topical agents such as salicylic acid or canthacur. (BACK)
Flat Foot Flat Feet, Heel Pain/Plantar Fascitis: A tearing of the tendon on the bottom of heel causing pain on the inside or centre of the heel, usually bothersome first thing in the morning.
Cause: Improper footwear, overuse, increasing age, flat pronated feet, high arch feet.
Treatment: Rest, shoes, orthotics, hot and cold therapy, taping, ultrasound, low level laser therapy, exercises. (BACK)
Metarsalgia Metarsalgia: Pain in the ball of foot with or without callus formation.
Cause: Thin soled shoes, high heels, structural deformities, prolonged standing or walking, overweight, arthritis, high arches.
Treatment: Footwear advice, metarsal pads, removal of callus, orthotics.
(BACK)
Morton's Neuroma Morton’s Neuroma: A pinched nerve in the ball of foot. Toes 2, 3 and 4 may be numb or have a tingling sensation.
Cause: High heeled footwear, narrow or tight footwear.
Treatment: Footwear, contrast foot baths, metatarsal pads, orthotics. (BACK)
Bunion Bunion: A structural deformity of the joint between the foot and big toe. Can be painful.
Cause: Certain tendons, ligaments, and bones of the big toe are no longer functioning correctly, hereditary, improper footwear, structural deformities.
Treatment: low level laser therapy, custom orthotics, splints, footwear. (BACK)
Hammer Toe Hammer/Claw Toe: A deformity of the joint in the second, third, or fourth toe causing it to be permanently bent, resembling a hammer.
Cause: Footwear that is either too short or too tight, high heeled footwear, structural problems with the foot such as flat feet.
Treatment: Physical therapy and exercises, footwear, toe props, surgery.
(BACK)
High Arch Arch Pain: Pain in the arch either from a high arch (Pes Cavus) or low arch (Pes Planus).
Cause: Hereditary, structural problems, obesity, certain diseases.
Treatment: Orthotics, padding, footwear. (BACK)
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